|Plant Lighting:||Full Sun, Partial Sun/Shade|
|Max Height (feet):||3-6'|
|Botanical Name:||Polianthes tuberosa 'The Pearl'|
|Additional Characteristics:||Great for Patio Containers!|
Customer photo by Pam of Harder, Idaho.
Bulbs are the epitome of nature's talent for packaging, containing within themselves all of the essentials they need to grow and flower. Some don’t even require soil—just witness a paperwhite narcissus blooming happily indoors in nothing more than a bowl of marble chips. But it is outdoors that bulbs really shine. Most are hardy and undemanding; some will even naturalize and provide color year after year. Whether for borders, cutting gardens, containers, rock gardens or naturalistic plantings, bulbs deserve a place in every garden scheme.
Generally, bulbs are divided into two categories: the spring-flowering types, which are typically planted in the fall; and the summer-flowering bulbs, usually planted in the spring. Lilies (Asiatics, Orientals, tigers) are an exception to this rule; they can be planted in either spring or fall for summer blooms.
Another crucial consideration is whether the bulb is hardy or tender. Hardy bulbs (daffodil, crocus, hyacinth, tulip, lily, etc.) will survive the winter right in the ground to bloom again the following year. Tender bulbs (gladiolus, canna, dahlia, etc.) will also flower year after year, but in cold climates they must be dug up or "lifted" in the fall, stored indoors over the winter, then replanted the following spring.
A naturalized planting is one of the most popular uses for bulbs in the landscape. Instead of planting the bulbs in a formal bed or border, you scatter them in irregular groupings across an area of lawn or meadow, or at a woodland edge. For the most natural effect, try not to plant bulbs in straight lines or discernible patterns.
Naturalizing bulbs in your lawn works well with the smaller, daintier flowers like crocuses, puschkinia, squill (Scilla), grape-hyacinth (Muscari), or snowdrops (Galanthus). These bulbs flower early in the season and their foliage dies back fairly quickly. If you plant such bulbs in a lawn, don't mow until the foliage has yellowed and died back. At this point, the plant will have stored all the food it needs in the underground bulb to produce next year's bloom.
Most bulbs appreciate well-drained soil and sunlight. Keep in mind, however, that bulbs that flower early in the spring will have bloomed and faded long before deciduous shrubs and trees have begun to leaf out. So treat think of spring-blooming bulbs much like spring wildflowers. A fairly open woodland setting or orchard makes an ideal setting, particularly for long-stemmed showy bulbs like daffodils and early tulips, which can be seen and admired even at a distance.
Some bulbs need to be divided. For example, daffodils multiply enough to form dense clumps, which compromises the flowers. Dig after flowering (while you can still find them), divide the clumps, and replant immediately or store until fall.
For all bulbs, including larger daffodils and tulips, don't remove or mow over the spent foliage until it has withered naturally. For this reason, it's best not to plant these long-standing bulbs in a lawn or other formal area, where the dying foliage can cause an unsightly mess. Try planting these bulbs in a field or meadow, or somewhere else that you only mow once or twice a year. Or plant them at the base of deciduous shrubs or in mixed beds or borders where later-blooming plants will draw attention from the spent foliage.
Nearly all hardy, spring-flowering bulbs require a period of "chilling" or cold dormancy before they will begin to grow and bloom. For gardeners in most regions of North America, providing this cold treatment is easy. Simply planting the bulbs in the fall and leaving them alone over the winter provides plenty of cold treatment. Just make sure to select bulbs that are hardy in your growing zone.
However, people who live in very mild winter regions (Zones 9 and 10) must select their bulbs very carefully. Daffodils should be planted in December or January (the coldest time of the year), but other hardy bulbs, such as tulips, crocuses, and hyacinths, may require special treatment in mild-winter areas. Gardeners in these regions of the country should select from among the many varieties that are rated best in warm spring and summer conditions.
Many tulips will grow well as annuals in the South if the bulbs are prechilled. Other good bulbs for warm climates include crocuses, hyacinths, lilies, muscari (grape hyacinth), colchicum (autumn crocus), and alliums (ornamental onions).
The easiest way to prechill bulbs is to store them in the refrigerator, where temperatures can be easily maintained at 40 to 45 degrees F. Store them in breathable mesh bags, like the ones they are often sold in at garden centers. Then, when they have chilled for the requisite number of weeks, simply remove the bulbs from the refrigerator and plant them either outdoors in the ground or in containers.
If you have enough space in the refrigerator, you can even plant bulbs right in their containers and remove the whole pot at the end of the chilling period. Either way, place containers of bulbs that you're forcing into a warm, sunny spot and then sit back and wait for the bulbs to send up their green leaves. After their blooming period is over, you can continue to water the pots, letting the foliage die down naturally, then replant the whole mass of bulbs in the outdoor garden.
The most popular bulb for winter forcing is undoubtedly the paperwhite narcissus, which requires no period of prechilling before it will blossom. However, you can also add variety and color to your winter or early spring displays by prechilling many other types of bulbs, then forcing them in containers for indoor bloom.
It's common for florists to sell containers of forced bulbs that are all of one type, such as dark purple or pink tulips. This makes a smashing display, but you can also be creative by forcing several kinds of bulbs of different colors or even different species to make a mixed display.
Unless you're using a large container or you have a good eye for natural design, it's best to experiment with only a couple of types of bulbs in each pot. Plant bulbs that grow to roughly the same height and whose flowers will complement each other in form and color (pink alliums and white Dutch crocuses, for instance).
Pots sold for forcing bulbs tend to have no holes in the bottom, because many people grow paperwhite narcissus in a medium of small stones instead of soil, and so drainage is not an issue. It is possible to grow other bulbs this way as well, but keep in mind that you probably won't be able to replant them outdoors after they have blossomed unless you grow them in soil. When forcing bulbs in potting soil, make sure the container has drainage holes in its bottom and that you place a dish underneath it to catch the excess water, as with any other houseplant.
Although tulips are technically considered perennials, many gardeners find that their bulbs are relatively short-lived and begin to decline over two or three years, producing smaller flowers and eventually dying out altogether. Unless your climate and growing conditions are ideal (hot, dry summers, cold winters, and well-drained soil), it can be difficult to coax some varieties of tulips into making a long-term commitment to your garden.
However, there are other types that, when given a little special care, will flower repeatedly and actually increase in size and beauty. These varieties are commonly known as "perennial tulips." One note: When buying Darwin hybrids, keep in mind that the ones with deep color will naturalize better than those with pastel colors.
To create the best conditions for perennial tulips, top-dress the planting bed with well-rotted cow manure, or add a slow-release fertilizer in the fall (9-9-6 or lower profile). After the flowers have finished blooming in the spring, deadhead the spent blossoms and allow the foliage to mature and wither naturally, so the bulbs can gather energy for next year's bloom.
Lilies are no more difficult to grow than other hardy bulbs, so long as you keep in mind a few of their important differences.
Plant lilies as soon as you get them, either in the fall or the spring. Because the bulbs lack the papery covering (known as a "tunic") that is common to other hardy bulbs, they can dry out quickly in storage.
Even more than other bulbs, lilies demand well drained soil. Dig the spot where you plan to plant lilies to a depth of at least 12 inches, remove rocks and add organic matter such as leaf mold or peat moss to improve both the soil's structure and drainage. Like other bulbs, lilies appreciate a little bone meal scratched in at the bottom of the planting hole, but do not really require other fertilizers at planting time. Instead, wait until the bulbs send up green leaves and then sprinkle a complete organic fertilizer around the plant and water it in.
Spread an organic mulch around lilies to help keep the soil moist and cool; use compost, well-rotted manure, or a longer-lasting mulch, such as wood chips or cocoa shells. As with other perennials, cover the bed over the winter with straw and/or evergreen boughs to help protect the bulbs from alternate freeze/thaw cycles.
During the flowering season, remove spent blooms, but try not to cut off more than a third of the stem, which can reduce the plant's vigor and longevity. This can be difficult to follow if you're cutting stems for indoor arrangements. So consider growing some lilies in perennial beds or borders, and others in a designated cutting garden.
Tender bulbs tend to belong to the summer-flowering group and include such popular garden specimens as dahlia, gladiolus, tuberous begonia, canna and calla lily (Zantedeschia).
Technically, these are not "true bulbs," because they don't contain a tiny flower and stalk inside of them. Instead, the plants grow from bulblike structures known as corms (gladiolus), tubers (dahlia, caladium), and rhizomes (canna). However, they are just as dependable as true bulbs and can be grown in much the same way.
These exotic summer-blooming bulbs can be integrated into the perennial garden, but because they are so popular for arrangements, they're often planted right in the vegetable garden or in a special cutting garden. Plant tender bulbs about the same time as beans and other crops, after the last frost date in spring. Then, around the first fall frosts, when the garden's tender crops are winding down, dig up the bulbs and store them away for the winter.
These tender bulbs vary in hardiness, and it's impossible to give general growing instructions for all of them; different plants have distinct preferences about light, and soil structure and fertility.
Gardeners living in Zone 8 or warmer regions can successfully overwinter cannas, callas and other types. However, by far the most popular way to grow these exotic tropical and subtropical natives is to dig up the plants around the time of the first fall frosts, allow the bulbs to dry for a short period, and then store them either in paper or mesh bags or placed in a shallow pan or box and covered with dry peat moss. Ideal storage conditions are dry, dark, and cool, around 40 to 50 degrees F.
* Taylor's Guide to Bulbs, Barbara W. Ellis (Houghton Mifflin, 2001).
* Bulbs: Four Seasons of Beautiful Blooms, Lewis and Nancy Hill (Storey, 1994).
* Daffodils for American Gardens, Brent and Becky Heath (Elliott & Clark, 1995).
* John E. Bryan on Bulbs, John E. Bryan (Macmillan, 1994).
* The Random House Book of Bulbs, Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix (Random House, 1989).
Begonias, such as this Skaugum Begonia, are well-suited to containers.
Growing in containers saves space, but it's also a smart alternative if you are restricted by too much shade, poor soil, too little time, limited mobility or a difficult climate. Container gardens can be much more productive than a regular garden while allowing you to avoid most pest and disease problems. Best of all, it brings your garden right up close, creating a sense of intimacy that you don't get in an ordinary backyard garden.
Almost anything can serve as a container for growing plants. In addition to terra cotta, plastic or pressed fiber pots, you can use recycled whiskey barrels, 5-gallon food buckets, bushel baskets, plastic tubs, wooden planter boxes, even old tires! Self-watering planters, which have built-in water reservoirs, are great innovations.
The size of container that you use should be determined by the plants you plan to grow. Begonias may get by in a 6-inch deep container, but don't try to grow a canna in a container that holds less than 3 gallons of soil. The general rule is to use the largest container possible, because the more soil there is, the more root space there will be—and the longer your plants can go between waterings.
Make sure the containers have drainage holes—on the sides rather than the bottom if possible—so excess water can drain and roots won't get waterlogged. For large pots with drainage holes on the bottom, elevate the pots on bricks or scraps of wood so that the water can escape.
In general, a 20-gallon pot should have four to six 3/4-inch holes; a 30-gallon pot should have at least eight 1-inch holes. You can put stones or bits of crockery in the bottom of the pot, but with a well-aerated soil mix, this is unnecessary and will only steal valuable root space.
Once you have chosen the right container, you are ready to pick a soil mix. Soil for container-grown plants should be light and friable, well drained and moisture-retentive. Garden soil is much too dense and can introduce disease and insect problems. Most container-grown plants are happiest in a soilless blend comprised of sphagnum moss, vermiculite or perlite, with the addition of finished compost.
Because they bloom constantly, Topmix Dahlias make ideal windowbox plants.
Because they bloom constantly, Topmix Dahlias make ideal windowbox plants.
It's easy to purchase a pre-mixed blend, but you can also create your own mixes, using the following recipes as a guide.
Organic Blend: 5 gallons finished compost, 1 gallon builder's sand, 1 gallon vermiculite or perlite, 1 cup granular-all purpose organic fertilizer.
Standard Blend (Cornell Mix): 1 bushel vermiculite, 1 bushel ground sphagnum moss, 8 tablespoons super phosphate, 8 tablespoons ground limestone, 2 cups bone meal.
Light Blend (for rooftops): 5 gallons ground sphagnum moss, 5 gallons vermiculite or perlite, 2 gallons compost, 1 cup granular all-purpose fertilizer.
Any soil mix will become compacted over time. If your containers seem water-logged and heavy, you may need to replace your soil mix at the start of a new growing season with a fresh mix.
If you go off to work in the morning without watering your windowboxes or patio containers, you are likely to come home to droopy, if not dead plants. When plants get too dry, their delicate feeder roots die and the plant must concentrate its energy on re-growing damaged roots rather than producing fruit or flowers.
That means unless you use self-watering planters or have a drip-irrigation system, you'll probably need to check on your plants daily, and maybe even twice a day if the weather is really hot. If you have more than a few planters, and especially if you travel, a drip-irrigation system is ideal.
Three Watering Innovations for Containers
Because most potting mixes provide few nutrients, your plants will be totally dependent on you for their food. Add granular organic fertilizer at planting time, then water weekly with half-strength, water-soluble fertilizer. Foliar feed with seaweed or fish emulsion for a quick pick-me-up if your plants look stressed or have been cut back.
Each week during the growing season, remove spent flowers and pinch back leggy stems. When necessary, replace tired plants with some fresh annuals, especially late-season favorites, such as ornamental kale and mums.
If you plan to overwinter some of your potted plants, they should be cut back and put in a cool location. Water sparingly and do not fertilize until spring. Once warm weather arrives, remove plants from their containers, tease away old soil, and repot the plants in a fresh soil blend.
Some sort of vertical support is a necessity for container-grown tomato plants, cucumbers, and flowering vines. Trellises can also add a beautiful vertical accent when covered with morning glories or sweet peas. Keep the scale of the trellis in proportion to the pot, and be sure to attach it securely using brackets or wires. Losing a mature tomato plant or flower-covered trellis to an August thunderstorm can be heartbreaking.
This planter has been layered with bulbs, which ensures a longer season of bloom.
If you are short on garden space or do not have access to a garden, you can still enjoy the beauty of spring-flowering bulbs. Most spring-flowering bulbs can be grown in a container as well as in the garden. To be successful requires some special attention, but the colorful spring results are well worth the effort. The one essential step is to expose the potted bulbs to at least 12 weeks of temperatures between 32 and 45 degrees F.
You can choose your own bulbs, or, to make things simple, you can use Dutch Gardens' Bulb Beds for Pots. The planting trays are made to fit a 10- to 12-in. pot.
Choosing a Container: The size of container that you use should be determined by the number of bulbs you want to plant. Regardless of the diameter of the pot, we recommend using a container that is at least 8 inches deep. Make sure the container has drainage holes—on the sides rather than the bottom if possible—so excess water can drain and roots won't get waterlogged. Self-watering pots are not recommended for growing spring-blooming bulbs.
Choosing a Potting Mix: Once you have chosen a container, you are ready to select a soil mix. Soil for container-grown plants should be light and friable, well drained and moisture-retentive. Garden soil is much too dense and can introduce disease and insect problems. Your bulbs will grow best in a soilless blend comprised of milled sphagnum moss and vermiculite or perlite, with the addition of some finished compost.
Drainage: When spring-blooming bulbs fail to flower, it's most often because the bulbs have been too wet during the winter. To ensure good drainage, we recommend lining the bottom of your container with an inch or two of stones or pieces of broken pots. Make sure that excess moisture can drain away so the pot is never in standing water.
Start by placing several inches of potting mix on top of the drainage material. Big bulbs, such as tulips and daffodils, should be planted 6 inches deep. Smaller bulbs, such as crocuses and muscari, need to be about 3 inches below the soil surface. Place enough soil on the bottom of your container to allow for the proper planting depth of your bulbs, taking into account that the finished soil surface should be about 1-inch below the top of the pot.
If you will be planting more than one type of bulb in the same container, plant the bulbs with the deepest planting requirement first (tulips and daffodils), followed by an inch of two of potting soil. Then add the bulbs that have shallower planting requirements (crocus and muscari). This planting technique, called layering, will provide you with a succession of blooms and give your container a very full look.
Watering: After planting, water the container thoroughly. Don't allow the soil to dry out completely during the winter. If you don't receive enough rain to moisten the soil or if you are storing the container in a covered area, such as a shed or garage, water the container regularly enough to maintain "barely moist" soil-about once a month.
Cold Protection & Cold Treatment: For proper flower formation, spring-blooming bulbs must be exposed to a minimum of 12 weeks of temperatures below 45 degrees F. If you are growing spring-blooming bulbs in containers, here are a few things to keep in mind:
Skilled designers combine plants and "hardscape" (stone, fencing, lighting and decorations), to create a beautiful garden.
Experienced gardeners have no problem deciding when to plant their peas, how deep to put their tulip bulbs, or how much to water their geraniums. But when it comes to garden design, even the most seasoned gardeners begin to sweat. We can spend weeks trying to find the perfect spot for a new shrub; spend an entire winter sketching plans for a new perennial garden; and agonize for years about how to reconfigure the front walk. Why do we find these decisions so paralyzing?
One reason may be that garden design is perceived as the work of experts: landscape architects, landscape designers, garden designers, and landscape contractors. Yet some of the most beautiful gardens in the world were not designed by experts. Sissinghurst, the home and gardens of Vita Sackville-West and Harold Nicolson, is a perfect example. So, too, are the gardens of Tasha Tudor and Thomas Jefferson. These gardens are the result of an attentive eye, a sensitive hand, and many years of experimentation—skills that are not the exclusive property of design professionals. Our goal in this article is to help you overcome the garden design jitters, and give you the confidence to finally remove that hedge of overgrown yews, install a flagstone path, or decide where to put a water garden.
Some gardeners wouldn't dream of planting anything without having a comprehensive design and planting plan for their entire yard. Others don't think about "designing" their gardens until several years down the road. And still other gardeners never develop a long-range or a short-range plan. They do their planning in the moment, poised with a shovel and a couple of homeless plants.
Which approach is right for you? It depends entirely on who you are and what you are comfortable with. If you have the confidence to forge ahead and follow your intuition, do so! If you feel the need to get some professional advice, then that's the best alternative for you. Both approaches are equally valid.
It is good to remember that there is no ultimate garden design for your property. There are as many different designs as there are gardeners. And even if you had a detailed plan that you executed perfectly, tomorrow would bring a new interest, a new challenge, and a whole new set of design decisions. The trees will mature and turn your sunny meadow into a shady glade. The weeping cherry that anchored your spring bulb garden will die and need to be replaced. You will tire of the cottage garden and develop a passion for dwarf conifers. In garden design there are no "right" decisions. What you have is a delightful (though sometimes unnerving) opportunity to express yourself. The hardest part may be trusting your own intuition, and allowing yourself to experiment as you evolve your own unique garden design.
One of the most valuable design tools is a site plan, or bird's-eye view of your yard. Seeing your garden on paper makes it much easier to identify underlying design elements such as traffic patterns, scale, and symmetry. A professional designer will give you a site plan that is precisely drawn to scale, but your own rough sketch or a survey map will be adequate for all but the most complex landscape designs. Once you have a plan to work from, you can start to indicate the positive and negative features of your yard (trees, shrubs, fences, outbuildings, pathways, views) and natural environmental factors such as light conditions and soil or drainage problems. Pathways and garden areas can be sketched right on the plan. If you enlarge sections of the plan, you can also use it to create your planting map.
Should you hire a professional landscaper or garden designer to help you with your site plan? If you have the means and desire to do so, it will probably be money well spent. Professional advice will always give you a valuable new perspective on your yard and gardens. You may follow their recommendations to the letter, or select only the elements that you find most appealing or most manageable. It is not necessary to contract for a full-scale site plan. Most designers will be very willing to focus their attention on a particular area (like the entryway). One well-conceived and well-executed feature may go a long way toward identifying a design style that you can then carry forward yourself.
What follows is a list of design principles that are common to all the creative arts, whether it be painting, music, literature, or garden design. Don't let them intimidate you. Just use them as tools to help you see.
Style. Every garden has a style or personality to it. Unless you have a very large yard that is divided into distinct areas or "rooms," it can be difficult to gracefully accommodate lots of different garden styles in one garden. Begin by thinking about whether you want your garden to have a formal or informal look. Consider your site, the style of your home, and your own personality. Though you don't have to be too rigorous about striving for a consistent style, you'll want to avoid a jumble of diverse and unrelated elements.
Flow. A garden is more pleasing if there is a logical progression from one area to the next. Think about how you would like someone to view and move through your garden. Paths are one way to connect some of the various parts to achieve a sense of order and cohesiveness. Focal points, such as a piece of sculpture, a distinctive tree, or a captivating view, can be used to draw the eye and pull us forward into a new space.
Scale. Scale is about proportions - how the sizes and shapes of things relate to each other. A 3 x 6-foot island bed floating in a half-acre sea of lawn will be seriously out of scale. The same will be true of a dwarf apple tree located in front of a two-story colonial house. Most scale problems are due to skimpiness, such as beds and paths that are too narrow, or plantings that are too small and tentative. If in doubt, err on the side of boldness and generosity.
Rhythm. By repeating plants and materials, you can produce a sense of rhythm, order, and predictability. Too much repetition is monotonous, but, as in music, variations on a theme are pleasing. You may want to repeat certain distinctive plant materials, such as the spearlike foliage of an ornamental grass or the velvety gray of lavender or santolina. Repeating splashes of color will also establish a rhythm in the garden and help to guide the eye. But don't be a slave to repetition. The best gardens always leave room for the unexpected—a giant pot of agapanthus, a whimsical birdhouse in a tangle of morning glories, or a blood-red rose tumbling over a stone wall.
Symmetry and balance. Humans seem to be naturally attracted to symmetry—toward creating perfectly balanced features. Our bodies are symmetrical, as are the cars we drive, the arrangement of windows in our homes, and often the shrubs that flank the front door. Used judiciously, perfect symmetry can be a powerfully appealing design technique. But when overused it can become stiff and boring. The natural landscape, which we also find visually pleasing, is not governed by symmetry. In nature, something more subtle is at work, something artists and designers refer to as balance. Balance is an essential factor in garden design. It refers to visual weight: a birch clump balanced by a large bed of hosta; a brick pathway balanced by a wide swath of lawn; orange Oriental poppies balanced by deep blue lupines. In these examples, the two elements are not identical in size, shape, or color, but there is a response from each side that balances the other. Successful garden design incorporates both symmetry and balance.
One thing great gardens share is a sense of place. Entering them is like entering a home—you are wrapped in a particular environment that is very different from the world outside. As in a home, the walls, roof, and floor help give a garden its unique character. When designing your own garden, you can use these aspects to create "rooms" in which plants are arranged in a context rather than floating in space.
Walls. English flower borders almost always have a background behind them. In England, this is usually a tall stone or brick wall or an evergreen hedge. The backdrop serves to stop your eye from roving and allows you to focus on the intended view. Most American gardeners don't make use of this very effective technique, and our gardens often get lost in the larger scene. Whenever possible, anchor your garden by placing something behind it: a structure, a fence, or a planting of shrubs. Remember to keep it simple. The objective is to direct the eye to the foreground, not create a competing element.
Roofs. Though there are plenty of very successful gardens that are totally exposed to the sky, most of us are naturally attracted to more sheltered, intimate spaces: a garden that's been carved out of a woodland or is nestled beneath an ancient apple tree. We are, for the same reason, drawn to arbors, bowers, allees, and pergolas. The roof need not cover your entire garden. Including the experience of enclosure somewhere in your garden—it can be as simple as an arbor at the entrance—will help to create that sense of being in a special environment set apart from the rest of the world.
Paths. Paths lead us through a garden and link one area to another. Paths in themselves are an age-old comfort, showing us the way we are to travel, assuring us of a progression that is safe and intentional. The paving material and the way the paths are laid out can help define the style of the garden. A meandering pathway made of flat stones spaced several inches apart will have an intimate, informal feel; a wide brick path suggests neatness and order; a broad path of closely mown lawn conveys grandeur and expansiveness. Paths also create edges that suggest where new plants or even entire gardens could be located.
Plants themselves can be important design elements, though few gardeners actually use them this way. The arching branches of a well-pruned cherry tree can frame an entire garden. The repetition of the spiky foliage of Japanese iris can be used to unify a long border. If you take the time to notice and experiment with the form, texture, and color of plants, you will discover a whole new palette of design elements with which to work. form. This is a three-dimensional consideration that takes into account the shapes and volumes of the plants in your garden.
A variety of different forms makes a garden interesting, but too much diversity can create visual confusion. Trees and shrubs often have characteristic forms that should be carefully combined to avoid clashing. Flowers, too, have characteristic shapes: the rounded heads of alliums, verbena, and globe thistle; the vertical spikes of delphinium, snapdragons, and veronica; the diaphanous look of baby's-breath and Queen Anne's lace; the strong architectural lines of a 5-foot martagon lily. You can experiment by grouping plants with the same form into a drift, or by repeating a pleasing composition of different forms several times.
Texture. Plants have a tactile quality that can be used as a valuable design tool. Think about how the glossy leaves of holly, magnolia, and roses contrast with the suede-like foliage of lamb's ears, heliotrope, and coleus. Or how the fat and fleshy leaves of a sedum differ from the needle-like foliage of rosemary or the quilted leaves of a blue-green hosta. Flowers also provide textural interest. They can be rich and velvety like a rose, or as thin and translucent as a poppy. Even tree bark contributes textural interest - especially during the winter months.
Color. Entire books have been written about using color as a design tool. You can approach color as a technician, using the color wheel to create harmonious combinations, or you can use your own eyes and emotions to guide you in creating the look and feel you want. Combining colors in new and interesting ways offers a lifetime of exciting possibilities.
As a general rule, red, orange and yellow are colors that jump out at you. They are lively and stimulating, and give the impression that they are closer to the eye than they actually are. If you plant too many hot-colored flowers, and don't balance them with cool-colored, less assertive plants, your garden will be a jumble of blaring trumpets. Green, blue, and violet are cool colors. In the garden these flowers create a more soothing, restful feeling, and tend to recede into the distance.
Visiting other people's gardens may be the best source of design inspiration. Take along a camera or sketch pad to capture features that you find particularly successful or appealing. Notice when some of the design techniques described above are being used. Don't be afraid to ask questions about what the gardener was trying to achieve.
Glossy picture books of gardens run a close second for design inspiration. They have the distinct advantage of being available for perusal year-round. Use sticky notes to mark images that capture your attention, then go back and review your choices to see where the similarities lie. Comparing and contrasting different types of gardens can be very useful in helping you decide what sort of look attracts you. If you are gravitating toward a theme garden (colonial, Japanese, Southwestern, English cottage), you'll find dozens of books that illustrate the design features and techniques that distinguish these styles.
Some garden design books include complete planting plans that are theme-oriented, or are specific to a certain type of site. They usually provide a site plan, a planting list, and an elevation drawing that shows what the garden will look like at eye level. You can follow the plan, or pick and choose the elements that appeal to you.
Creative gardeners read garden design books the way creative cooks read recipe books. Don't feel compelled to follow the garden design verbatim. You can lift ideas here and there, and combine them into your own unique expression.
Some purists believe that ornamentation—trellises, furniture, sculpture, and decorative planters—has no place in the garden. Others fill their gardens with so many decorative elements that it can be difficult to find the plants. Used judiciously, the furnishings and decorative features that you incorporate in your garden help give it style and character.
Decorative elements can be characterized as formal, informal, or somewhere in between. This has something to do with what the piece is (a whirligig versus a Japanese lantern), but also what the piece is made of. Fanciful wooden birdhouses and split-rail fencing have a casual, country feeling; whereas a bronze nude or a Grecian urn are more elegant and formal. When choosing decorative elements for your garden, the challenge is to select items that appeal to you, and that will also fit harmoniously with the style you are trying to achieve and any other decorative objects that you already own.
Creating Habitat for Backyard Pollinators
How many times have you seen a bee in your garden, buzzing from one snapdragon or squash blossom to another? At each visit the bee almost disappears into the flower as it uses its long tongue to lap nectar hidden deep within the flower. When it backs out, tiny bits of pollen are stuck to its hairy body.
Gardening for pollinators allows us to understand and appreciate a part of nature we usually don't notice: the insects. Once you start paying attention, you will find a whole world that is even more complex, fascinating and important than any of us realize.
Through simply looking for food, thousands of species of bees and other insects and animals help plants to reproduce. Of the estimated 240,000 flowering plants worldwide, 91 percent require an insect or animal to distribute their pollen in order to set fruit and seed. That includes one-third of all crops grown for people, including citrus fruits, almonds, berries, squash and cotton.
Most people recognize that bees are important pollinators. But that’s not all. Many species of butterflies, bats, birds, moths, flies and even mammals are also pollinators. They are so essential to reproduction that most of the world's plant life could not exist without them.
Despite the critically important service they provide, pollinators have been taken for granted and they are in jeopardy. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, we are facing an "impending pollination crisis," in which both wild and managed pollinators are disappearing at alarming rates.
In the U.S. the number of honeybees has decreased by 25 percent in the past decade due to a parasitic mite. Meanwhile, wild pollinators are threatened by habitat loss, pesticide use and disease—just as researchers are learning how valuable and efficient many of these pollinators are.
You can help improve the plight of pollinators, starting in your own backyard. Imagine a patchwork of pollinator gardens all across the country—building diverse communities of beneficial insects.
Flowers inspire people. From the tulipmania of 17th century Europe and obsessive orchid collecting two centuries later to the millions of avid gardeners around the world who now spend every moment of spare time tending their flowers.
But while some of us live for flowers, they certainly don't exist for us. They exist to lure pollinators—the bees, butterflies, flies, bats, birds and many other animals that facilitate sexual reproduction. For a complete list of flowers—and the pollinators they attract—see Plants That Attract Pollinators.
Flowers are the reproductive organs of a plant. When the insect lands on the flower and searches for nectar and pollen to eat, tiny pollen pieces on the anther—the male part of a flower - stick to the body of the insect. When the insect goes to another flower, some of that pollen sticks to that flower's stigma—the female part of the flower. That pollen then fertilizes the ovules which leads to seed production.
Over the last 100 million years, flowers have evolved an extraordinary range of strategies to facilitate the work of pollinators, from color and scent to petal design and bloom time.
Lilies have ridged petals to guide bees to the nectar-rich center; concentric rings on blanket flowers create a target focused on the nectar; zinnias and butterfly weeds have flat topped clusters of flowers to attract butterflies; delphiniums have a special petal that serves as a landing platform for bees.
Let's look more closely at one example of an insect and flower partnership: monkshoods (Aconitum spp.) and bumblebees. Monkshoods are entirely dependent upon bumblebees for pollination. They are also beautifully adapted to a bumblebee's needs.
Monkshood with a bumblebee crawling inside
As the name suggests, the petal-like sepals of each monkshood blossom form a hood-like cover concealing two long spurs with huge nectar-filled nectaries at the end. These nectar loads can only be reached by the long tongues of bumblebees. And when the bumblebee enters the blossom, it must walk over the male (pollen covered anther) and female (sticky stigma) parts of the flower. Without a visit from a bumblee, monkshood would be unable to set seed and reproduce.
Look closely at some of the flowers in your yard and see if you can see the specialized ways in which the flower attracts pollinators.
Thousands of different species helps plants pollinate, from bees, butterflies and ants to bats and birds. Listed here are some of the most important pollinators in the U.S. and the ones you are most likely to see in your backyard.
Bees are the world's workhorse pollinators, with over 40,000 different species worldwide and 4,000 in the U.S. alone. They carry and deliver pollen grains to more flowering plants than any other group. And bees are well adapted to this task. Their hind legs are hairy to hold pollen. Some species also have special sacs on their legs which hold pollen.
Bees are able to visit dozens or hundreds of flowers in one day searching for nectar and pollen. They are especially attracted to brightly colored yellow and blue flowers with a sweet fragrance. Bees will land on tube shaped flowers and crawl inside.
While honeybees are the best-known bee, most pollination is actually done by wild solitary bees, like mason bees, that do not live in hives.
Honeybee (Apis mellifera)
The honeybee is a European species of bee that was introduced to North America in colonial times. Today, U.S. beekeepers tend over 3 million colonies of honeybees. Those honeybees are generalists, which means they visit many different kinds of flowers, from fruit trees to clover.
Bumblebee (Bombus spp.)
The large bumblebees you see flying in the early spring are queens just out from hibernation. They have emerged from their long underground hibernation and are feeding and looking for an underground cavity to nest in. Later in the summer, you will see the worker bumblebees out foraging.
Unlike honeybees, bumblebees are capable of something called buzz pollination. This is when the bee lands on a flower and vibrates very quickly, stimulating the anther to release even more pollen.
Mason Bee (Osmia spp.)
Mason bees can be found throughout most of the United States. They are solitary and nest in hollow stems, woodpecker drillings and insect holes in trees. They are common near woodlands, in towns and suburbs and are excellent pollinators of many plants.
Squash Bee (Peponapis spp.)
Squash bees are well-adapted specialists. For example, the hoary squash bee depends entirely on squash and pumpkin. These bees are solitary and nest in burrows in the ground that approximately 10 inches deep and about the diameter of a pencil.
Butterflies are some of the world's most beautiful pollinators. In the U.S. there are about 700 different species. Butterflies love brightly colored yellow and pink flowers and those with flat-topped clusters of flowers that they can land on. They have a long proboscis which they will use to probe deep into flowers searching for nectar.
Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
Perhaps the best known butterfly is the monarch. The larval sate (a green and yellow striped caterpillar) feed almost exclusively on milkweed, although the adult butterflies visit many different kinds of flowers. Monarchs migrate each year between the U.S. and Mexico and so there are many vital pockets of habitat along their migration route.
Zebra Heliconian Butterfly (Heliconius charitonius, sometimes referred to as a "longwing")
Unlike most butterflies, zebra heliconians feed not only on nectar, but are also able to collect and consume pollen with their proboscis. They digest the pollen, and absorb its proteins. This extra nutrition allows the adult swallowtail to mate, lay eggs and survive for as long as 6 months.
Flies pollinate a huge variety of flowers, including many common garden flowers. Many syrphid flies visit tiny flowers.
Syrphid Fly (Syrphidae spp.)
In order to avoid predation by birds, many species in this family have evolved to look and even behave like bees. These flies are present throughout the growing season but are particularly common in the spring and fall.
Moths are less showy than butterflies, but even more numerous with 10,000 different species in the U.S. Unlike most other pollinating insects, moths are active primarily at night. They are attracted to white or light colored flowers with a strong, sweet scent, such as nicotiana, datura, moonflowers and various yellow evening primroses.
Hawkmoth (Manduca spp.)
Large hawkmoths the size of hummingbirds pollinate jimsonweed—the largest native flower in the U.S.—at night.
Hummingbirds are the most spectacular of the common pollinators, with their often irridescent plumage and spectacular flight displays. Hummingbirds are most attracted to nectar-rich red tubular flowers.
Ruby-Throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)
The tiny ruby-throated hummingbird weighs only a tenth of an ounce, but can consume 50 percent of its weight in nectar a day.
Bats are the world's most important pollinating mammal. While most bats in the U.S. feed on insects, there are several species in the southwestern U.S. that feed on fruit and nectar and are vital pollinators of desert plants, especially cacti.
Lesser Long-Nosed Bat (Leptonycteris curasoae)
This bat is one of the primary pollinators of the magnificant saguaro cactus. The migrating bats pollinate the cactus flowers as they feast on nectar. Later in the summer, they eat the fruit of those same palnts and help disperse the seeds. This bat is only about three inches long, but its tongue can be as long as its body.
1. Plant nectar and pollen rich flowers.
The most important step you can take is to plant a pollinator-friendly garden. Choose nectar and pollen-rich plants like wildflowers and old-fashioned varieties of flowers. A succession of blooming annuals, perennials and shrubs is best so nectar and pollen will be available throughout the growing season. Also, include plants like dill, fennel and milkweed that butterfly larvae feed on.
Any size garden can attract and support pollinators - from a wildflower meadow to a windowbox with a few well-chosen species. Researchers in Tuscon, Ariz. have found that communities of bees can sustain themselves for long periods of time in small vacant city lots.
A patchwork of pollinator gardens in neighborhoods, cities and rural areas around the country could provide enough habitat to restore healthy communities of beneficial insects and pollinators.
2. Go organic.
Many pesticides - even organic ones - are toxic to bees and other beneficial organisms. There's no need to use powerful poisons to protect your garden from insects and diseases. In the short term they may provide a quick knock-down to the attackers, but they also kill beneficial organisms. In the long term, you expose yourself, family, pets and wildlife to toxic chemicals, and risk disrupting the natural ecosystem that you and your garden inhabit.
All things considered, an organic approach is both safer and more effective. By applying the simple principles of ecological plant protection, you can work with nature to control pests and diseases, enjoy a healthier garden and harvest and protect pollinators and other beneficial insects.
If you do apply pesticides make sure you apply them carefully and selectively. To protect pollinators, do not use pesticides on open blossoms or when bees or other pollinators are present.
3. Provide shelter.
Butterflies, bees and other pollinators need shelter to hide from predators, get out of the elements and rear their young. Let a hedgerow or part of your lawn grow wild for ground-nesting bees. Let a pile of grass cuttings or a log decompose in a sunny place on the ground. Or, allow a dead tree to stand to create nooks for butterflies and solitary bees.
Artificial nesting boxes can also help increase the population of pollinators in your area. Wooden blocks with the proper-sized holes drilled into them will attract mason bees. Bat boxes provide a place for bats to raise their young.
4. Provide food and water
A pollinator garden will provide pollen and nectar. Consider adding special feeders to help attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Bees, birds and butterflies also all need water. Install a water garden, a birdbath or a catch basin for rain. Butterflies are attracted to muddy puddles which they will flock to for salts and nutrients as well as water.
5. Backyard beekeeping
You don't have to live in the country to keep bees. All you need is a little space, a water source, plenty of nearby flowers for them to visit, and a willingness to learn. Keeping a beehive or two in the backyard used to be a common practice. Maybe it's time to bring back this old-fashioned hobby. It does require equipment and some specific knowledge. But it's nothing an interested hobbyist can't handle. See the resources section to learn how to get started.